The first two questions face anyone who cares to distinguish the real from the unreal and the true from the false. The third question faces anyone who makes any decisions at all, and even not deciding is itself a decision. Thus all persons practice philosophy whether they know it or not. Autocosmic Answers What is existing?
Net renewable water resources per capita have declined dramatically over a single generation, and in little more than thirty years from now will reach dangerously low levels.
By the year the average net water resources in the Middle East are expected to be less than cubic meters per person per year, half of what they are today.
This situation is already keenly felt in India, China and Mexico, and even in the United States there is a problem of deteriorating water quality. More and more a dilemma arises between water use for industry and agriculture, and use for domestic household purposes.
Water consumption in several countries already exceeds renewable supply; others are at or close to the limits. In many poor countries, famine is prevented only by grains and cereals taken from global grain stocks.
Lately, however, these stocks have dropped sharply: Furthermore, experience shows that when available water resources drop to between 1, and 2, cubic meters per capita per year, large investments are generally required to meet ongoing water demand. However, when resources fall below 1, cubic meters per capita per year, difficult socio-economic adjustments are then required to cope with such scarcity.
Water conflicts exist in many places around the globe, such as between India and Bangladesh, Israel and its neighbors, Egypt and Ethiopia, Turkey and Syria, and Turkey and Iraq.
At the same time, the distribution of water sources is highly uneven: The global shift from rain-fed to irrigated agriculture has increased the salinity of the earth in many areas, and evaporation of fresh water has left chemical pesticides and fertilizers in the ground.
In addition, experience has shown that attempts to dam flood waters have prevented the normal drainage of destructive salts out of the soil to the sea, thereby rendering the soil unusable.
Furthermore, there is a proven link between deforestation and a reduction in the amount of rainfall. In Western Africa, deforestation has already contributed to shorter rainy seasons. In Florida, the reduction of vegetation has led to a 10 percent drop in rainfall over the past 30 years. Once exposed, land reflects more sunlight, producing atmospheric processes that reduce rainfall by drawing dryer air into a given area.
Dimensions of the Middle East Water Problem Water supplies in the Middle East are facing enormous pressures and all are already at maximal or near-maximal use. Many Jordanian towns get water only once a week. In the Gaza Strip, the salination of agricultural lands and fresh-water wells has reached catastrophic levels.
In Syria, the low level of the Euphrates, together with pollution from pesticides, chemicals and salt, has forced the Syrian government to cut back on the supply of drinking water and electricity in Damascus, Aleppo, and several other cities. Damascus is without water most nights, and is estimated to lose as much as 30 percent of its water from old, leaking pipes.
In Jordanian cities water losses from leaking pipes may have reached 60 percent. Over 50 percent of the population of the Middle East and North Africa excluding the Maghreb depend either on water from rivers that cross an international boundary before reaching them, or on desalinized water and water drawn from deep wells.
Two-thirds of all Arabic-speaking people in this region depend on river water that flows to them from non-Arabic-speaking countries, and another 24 percent live in areas with no perennial surface streams whatever.
The latter rely either on well water from rapidly depleting sources or seawater, which is expensive both to purify in sufficient quantities and to pump to its places of use.
The size of these water-dependent populations is rapidly increasing. Inthe population of this area numbered Water will be needed not only for these people as individuals, but also for industry and all other urban uses.
Irrigation water will also be needed to prevent, as far as possible, dependence on imported food.
In areas not reached by exotic streams, particularly the Arabian Peninsula and the Libyan Sahara, millions more Arabs must rely on wells and desalinized seawater.
In the Peninsula south of the Jordanian and Iraqi borders, in an area of 1, square miles, not a single permanent surface stream exists. If we add riverless Libya to the list, the Arab world includes 1, square miles without one permanent sur-face stream.
Water has long been a source of conflict in the Middle East. Any water taken by the upstream countries for their own needs means that the downstream countries get that much less. Similarly, growing immigration into Israel has caused anxiety among the Arabs that Israel will seek to exploit the two remaining rivers in the area whose waters have not yet been completely exhausted: Indeed, the average Israeli uses five to six times more water than the average person in Arab countries, and the new immigrants to Israel come mainly from countries where water is plentiful and lavishly used.
Jordan, already one of the poorest countries in terms of water, needs more water for thePalestinian refugees who were forced to leave Kuwait following the Gulf War.
Overall, population growth in the Middle East now averages a staggering 3 percent annually, which can only increase both the pressure on already exhausted water resources and the pollution of the water.
Israel, the West Bank and Gaza, and Jordan are facing a combined deficit of at least million cubic meters per year and some estimate the figure to be as high as million cubic meters.
Since agriculture consumes 80 percent of Middle East water, one remedy might be to cut back on agricultural production. But it seems unlikely that countries which gained their independence from the colonial powers during the last fifty to sixty years would agree to depend on imported food.
Could one expect that the Zionist dream of return to the land and to Jewish agriculture would be so easily relinquished? Would Arab farmers abandon their olive trees and grape vines?
Neither droughts nor water shortages have encouraged people to switch away from agriculture.The Global Water Shortage / Dimensions of the Middle East Water Problem / Depleted Sources, Growing Conflicts / The Suggested Solutions / Desalination: The Only Realistic Hope The problem of water scarcity is a growing worldwide phenomenon.
Net renewable water . The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
Apr 12, · List Of Latest PTE Essay Topics With Answers | PTE Essay Writing. Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good .
[Analysis] UPSC Mains GSM1: Lengthy Paper, Less Variety, 90% Qs from routine prep. sources PLUS Download last 5 years’ Topicwise Questionpapers. Water issues in developing countries include scarcity of drinking-water, floods, the siltation of river systems, as well as the contamination of rivers and large dams.
Some billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to clean water. Millions of women spend hours everyday collecting water, billion lack access to sanitation, and million children die each year from.